MPO

Inheritance Diagram

Inheritance diagram of tenpy.networks.mpo.MPO

Methods

MPO.__init__(sites, Ws[, bc, IdL, IdR, …])

Initialize self.

MPO.dagger()

Return hermition conjugate copy of self.

MPO.expectation_value(psi[, tol, max_range])

Calculate <psi|self|psi>/<psi|psi>.

MPO.from_grids(sites, grids[, bc, IdL, IdR, …])

Initialize an MPO from grids.

MPO.from_hdf5(hdf5_loader, h5gr, subpath)

Load instance from a HDF5 file.

MPO.get_IdL(i)

Return index of IdL at bond to the left of site i.

MPO.get_IdR(i)

Return index of IdR at bond to the right of site i.

MPO.get_W(i[, copy])

Return W at site i.

MPO.get_full_hamiltonian([maxsize])

extract the full Hamiltonian as a d**L``x``d**L matrix.

MPO.get_grouped_mpo(blocklen)

group each blocklen subsequent tensors and return result as a new MPO.

MPO.group_sites([n, grouped_sites])

Modify self inplace to group sites.

MPO.is_equal(other[, eps, max_range])

Check if self and other represent the same MPO to precision eps.

MPO.is_hermitian([eps, max_range])

Check if self is a hermitian MPO.

MPO.save_hdf5(hdf5_saver, h5gr, subpath)

Export self into a HDF5 file.

MPO.set_W(i, W)

Set W at site i.

MPO.sort_legcharges()

Sort virtual legs by charges.

MPO.test_sanity()

Sanity check, raises ValueErrors, if something is wrong.

Class Attributes and Properties

MPO.L

Number of physical sites; for an iMPO the len of the MPO unit cell.

MPO.chi

Dimensions of the virtual bonds.

MPO.dim

List of local physical dimensions.

MPO.finite

Distinguish MPO vs iMPO.

class tenpy.networks.mpo.MPO(sites, Ws, bc='finite', IdL=None, IdR=None, max_range=None)[source]

Bases: object

Matrix product operator, finite (MPO) or infinite (iMPO).

Parameters
  • sites (list of Site) – Defines the local Hilbert space for each site.

  • Ws (list of Array) – The matrices of the MPO. Should have labels wL, wR, p, p*.

  • bc ({'finite' | 'segment' | 'infinite'}) – Boundary conditions as described in mps. 'finite' requires Ws[0].get_leg('wL').ind_len = 1.

  • IdL ((iterable of) {int | None}) – Indices on the bonds, which correpond to ‘only identities to the left’. A single entry holds for all bonds.

  • IdR ((iterable of) {int | None}) – Indices on the bonds, which correpond to ‘only identities to the right’.

  • max_range (int | np.inf | None) – Maximum range of hopping/interactions (in unit of sites) of the MPO. None for unknown.

L

len(sites). For an iMPS, this is the number of sites in the MPS unit cell.

Type

int

chinfo

The nature of the charge.

Type

ChargeInfo

sites

Defines the local Hilbert space for each site.

Type

list of Site

dtype

The data type of the _W.

Type

type

bc

Boundary conditions as described in mps. 'finite' requires Ws[0].get_leg('wL').ind_len = 1.

Type

{‘finite’ | ‘segment’ | ‘infinite’}

IdL

Indices on the bonds (length L`+1), which correpond to ‘only identities to the left’. ``None` for bonds where it is not set. In standard form, this is 0 (except for unset bonds in finite case)

Type

list of {int | None}

IdR

Indices on the bonds (length L`+1), which correpond to ‘only identities to the right’. ``None` for bonds where it is not set. In standard form, this is the last index on the bond (except for unset bonds in finite case).

Type

list of {int | None}

max_range

Maximum range of hopping/interactions (in unit of sites) of the MPO. None for unknown.

Type

int | np.inf | None

grouped

Number of sites grouped together, see group_sites().

Type

int

_W

The matrices of the MPO. Labels are 'wL', 'wR', 'p', 'p*'.

Type

list of Array

_valid_bc

Class attribute. Valid boundary conditions; the same as for an MPS.

Type

tuple of str

save_hdf5(hdf5_saver, h5gr, subpath)[source]

Export self into a HDF5 file.

This method saves all the data it needs to reconstruct self with from_hdf5().

Specifically, it saves sites, chinfo, max_range (under these names), _W as "tensors", IdL as "index_identity_left", IdR as "index_identity_right", and bc as "boundary_condition". Moreover, it saves L, and grouped as HDF5 attributes, as well as the maximum of chi under the name max_bond_dimension.

Parameters
  • hdf5_saver (Hdf5Saver) – Instance of the saving engine.

  • h5gr (:class`Group`) – HDF5 group which is supposed to represent self.

  • subpath (str) – The name of h5gr with a '/' in the end.

classmethod from_hdf5(hdf5_loader, h5gr, subpath)[source]

Load instance from a HDF5 file.

This method reconstructs a class instance from the data saved with save_hdf5().

Parameters
  • hdf5_loader (Hdf5Loader) – Instance of the loading engine.

  • h5gr (Group) – HDF5 group which is represent the object to be constructed.

  • subpath (str) – The name of h5gr with a '/' in the end.

Returns

obj – Newly generated class instance containing the required data.

Return type

cls

classmethod from_grids(sites, grids, bc='finite', IdL=None, IdR=None, Ws_qtotal=None, leg0=None, max_range=None)[source]

Initialize an MPO from grids.

Parameters
  • sites (list of Site) – Defines the local Hilbert space for each site.

  • grids (list of list of list of entries) – For each site (outer-most list) a matrix-grid (corresponding to wL, wR) with entries being or representing (see grid_insert_ops()) onsite-operators.

  • bc ({'finite' | 'segment' | 'infinite'}) – Boundary conditions as described in mps.

  • IdL ((iterable of) {int | None}) – Indices on the bonds, which correpond to ‘only identities to the left’. A single entry holds for all bonds.

  • IdR ((iterable of) {int | None}) – Indices on the bonds, which correpond to ‘only identities to the right’.

  • Ws_qtotal ((list of) total charge) – The qtotal to be used for each grid. Defaults to zero charges.

  • leg0 (LegCharge) – LegCharge for ‘wL’ of the left-most W. By default, construct it.

  • max_range (int | np.inf | None) – Maximum range of hopping/interactions (in unit of sites) of the MPO. None for unknown.

See also

grid_insert_ops()

used to plug in entries of the grid.

tenpy.linalg.np_conserved.grid_outer()

used for final conversion.

test_sanity()[source]

Sanity check, raises ValueErrors, if something is wrong.

property L

Number of physical sites; for an iMPO the len of the MPO unit cell.

property dim

List of local physical dimensions.

property finite

Distinguish MPO vs iMPO.

True for an MPO (bc='finite', 'segment'), False for an iMPO (bc='infinite').

property chi

Dimensions of the virtual bonds.

get_W(i, copy=False)[source]

Return W at site i.

set_W(i, W)[source]

Set W at site i.

get_IdL(i)[source]

Return index of IdL at bond to the left of site i.

May be None.

get_IdR(i)[source]

Return index of IdR at bond to the right of site i.

May be None.

group_sites(n=2, grouped_sites=None)[source]

Modify self inplace to group sites.

Group each n sites together using the GroupedSite. This might allow to do TEBD with a Trotter decomposition, or help the convergence of DMRG (in case of too long range interactions).

Parameters
  • n (int) – Number of sites to be grouped together.

  • grouped_sites (None | list of GroupedSite) – The sites grouped together.

sort_legcharges()[source]

Sort virtual legs by charges. In place.

The MPO seen as matrix of the wL, wR legs is usually very sparse. This sparsity is captured by the LegCharges for these bonds not being sorted and bunched. This requires a tensordot to do more block-multiplications with smaller blocks. This is in general faster for large blocks, but might lead to a larger overhead for small blocks. Therefore, this function allows to sort the virtual legs by charges.

expectation_value(psi, tol=1e-10, max_range=100)[source]

Calculate <psi|self|psi>/<psi|psi>.

For a finite MPS, simply contract the network <psi|self|psi>. For an infinite MPS, it assumes that self is the a of terms, with IdL and IdR defined on each site. Under this assumption, it calculates the expectation value of terms with the left-most non-trivial operator inside the MPO unit cell and returns the average value per site.

Parameters
  • psi (MPS) – State for which the expectation value should be taken.

  • tol (float) – Ignored for finite psi. For infinite MPO containing exponentially decaying long-range terms, stop evaluating further terms if the terms in LP have norm < tol.

  • max_range (int) – Ignored for finite psi. Contract at most self.L * max_range sites, even if tol is not reached. In that case, issue a warning.

Returns

exp_val – The expectation value of self with respect to the state psi. For an infinite MPS: the density per site.

Return type

float/complex

dagger()[source]

Return hermition conjugate copy of self.

is_hermitian(eps=1e-10, max_range=None)[source]

Check if self is a hermitian MPO.

Shorthand for self.is_equal(self.dagger(), eps, max_range).

is_equal(other, eps=1e-10, max_range=None)[source]

Check if self and other represent the same MPO to precision eps.

To compare them efficiently we view self and other as MPS and compare the overlaps abs(<self|self> + <other|other> - 2 Re(<self|other>)) < eps*(<self|self>+<other|other>)

Parameters
  • other (MPO) – The MPO to compare to.

  • eps (float) – Precision threshold what counts as zero.

  • max_range (None | int) – Ignored for finite MPS; for finite MPS we consider only the terms contained in the sites with indices range(self.L + max_range). None defaults to max_range (or L in case this is infinite or None).

Returns

equal – Whether self equals other to the desired precision.

Return type

bool

get_grouped_mpo(blocklen)[source]

group each blocklen subsequent tensors and return result as a new MPO.

get_full_hamiltonian(maxsize=1000000.0)[source]

extract the full Hamiltonian as a d**L``x``d**L matrix.