# NearestNeighborModel¶

Inheritance Diagram Methods

 NearestNeighborModel.__init__(lattice, H_bond) Initialize self. Calculate bond energies . Calculate the MPO Hamiltonian from the bond Hamiltonian. NearestNeighborModel.from_MPOModel(mpo_model) Initialize a NearestNeighborModel from a model class defining an MPO. NearestNeighborModel.from_hdf5(hdf5_loader, …) Load instance from a HDF5 file. Modify self in place to group sites. NearestNeighborModel.save_hdf5(hdf5_saver, …) Export self into a HDF5 file. NearestNeighborModel.test_sanity() Return a NearestNeighborModel with same lattice, but trivial (H=0) bonds.
class tenpy.models.model.NearestNeighborModel(lattice, H_bond)[source]

Base class for a model of nearest neigbor interactions w.r.t. the MPS index.

In this class, the Hamiltonian $$H = \sum_{i} H_{i,i+1}$$ is represented by “bond terms” $$H_{i,i+1}$$ acting only on two neighboring sites i and i+1, where i is an integer. Instances of this class are suitable for tebd.

Note that the “nearest-neighbor” in the name referst to the MPS index, not the lattice. In short, this works only for 1-dimensional (1D) nearest-neighbor models: A 2D lattice is internally mapped to a 1D MPS “snake”, and even a nearest-neighbor coupling in 2D becomes long-range in the MPS chain.

Parameters
• lattice (tenpy.model.lattice.Lattice) – The lattice defining the geometry and the local Hilbert space(s).

• H_bond (list of {Array | None}) – The Hamiltonian rewritten as sum_i H_bond[i] for MPS indices i. H_bond[i] acts on sites (i-1, i); we require len(H_bond) == lat.N_sites. Legs of each H_bond[i] are ['p0', 'p0*', 'p1', 'p1*'].

H_bond

The Hamiltonian rewritten as sum_i H_bond[i] for MPS indices i. H_bond[i] acts on sites (i-1, i), None represents 0. Legs of each H_bond[i] are ['p0', 'p0*', 'p1', 'p1*'].

Type

list of {Array | None}

classmethod from_MPOModel(mpo_model)[source]

Initialize a NearestNeighborModel from a model class defining an MPO.

This is especially usefull in combination with MPOModel.group_sites().

Parameters

mpo_model (MPOModel) – A model instance implementing the MPO. Does not need to be a NearestNeighborModel, but should only have nearest-neighbor couplings.

Examples

The SpinChainNNN2 has next-nearest-neighbor couplings and thus only implements an MPO:

>>> from tenpy.models.spins_nnn import SpinChainNNN2
>>> nnn_chain = SpinChainNNN2({'L': 20})
parameter 'L'=20 for SpinChainNNN2
>>> print(isinstance(nnn_chain, NearestNeighborModel))
False
>>> print("range before grouping:", nnn_chain.H_MPO.max_range)
range before grouping: 2


By grouping each two neighboring sites, we can bring it down to nearest neighbors.

>>> nnn_chain.group_sites(2)
>>> print("range after grouping:", nnn_chain.H_MPO.max_range)
range after grouping: 1


Yet, TEBD will not yet work, as the model doesn’t define H_bond. However, we can initialize a NearestNeighborModel from the MPO:

>>> nnn_chain_for_tebd = NearestNeighborModel.from_MPOModel(nnn_chain)

trivial_like_NNModel()[source]

Return a NearestNeighborModel with same lattice, but trivial (H=0) bonds.

bond_energies(psi)[source]

Calculate bond energies <psi|H_bond|psi>.

Parameters

psi (MPS) – The MPS for which the bond energies should be calculated.

Returns

E_bond – List of bond energies: for finite bc, E_Bond[i] is the energy of bond i, i+1. (i.e. we omit bond 0 between sites L-1 and 0); for infinite bc E_bond[i] is the energy of bond i-1, i.

Return type

1D ndarray

group_sites(n=2, grouped_sites=None)[source]

Modify self in place to group sites.

Group each n sites together using the GroupedSite. This might allow to do TEBD with a Trotter decomposition, or help the convergence of DMRG (in case of too long range interactions).

This has to be done after finishing initialization and can not be reverted.

Parameters
• n (int) – Number of sites to be grouped together.

• grouped_sites (None | list of GroupedSite) – The sites grouped together.

Returns

grouped_sites – The sites grouped together.

Return type

list of GroupedSite

calc_H_MPO_from_bond(tol_zero=1e-15)[source]

Calculate the MPO Hamiltonian from the bond Hamiltonian.

Parameters

tol_zero (float) – Arrays with norm < tol_zero are considered to be zero.

Returns

H_MPO – MPO representation of the Hamiltonian.

Return type

MPO

classmethod from_hdf5(hdf5_loader, h5gr, subpath)[source]

Load instance from a HDF5 file.

This method reconstructs a class instance from the data saved with save_hdf5().

Parameters
• hdf5_loader (Hdf5Loader) – Instance of the loading engine.

• h5gr (Group) – HDF5 group which is represent the object to be constructed.

• subpath (str) – The name of h5gr with a '/' in the end.

Returns

obj – Newly generated class instance containing the required data.

Return type

cls

save_hdf5(hdf5_saver, h5gr, subpath)[source]

Export self into a HDF5 file.

This method saves all the data it needs to reconstruct self with from_hdf5().

This implementation saves the content of __dict__ with save_dict_content(), storing the format under the attribute 'format'.

Parameters
• hdf5_saver (Hdf5Saver) – Instance of the saving engine.

• h5gr (:classGroup) – HDF5 group which is supposed to represent self.

• subpath (str) – The name of h5gr with a '/' in the end.